I am Joannes Vermorel, founder at Lokad. I am also an engineer from the Corps des Mines who initially graduated from the ENS.

I have been passionate about computer science, software matters and data mining for almost two decades. (RSS - ATOM)


Entries in pricing (2)


A few lessons about pricing B2B apps

My own SaaS company has always been struggling with its own pricing. For a company now selling its own pricing optimization technology for commerce, this was a bit ironic. Well, pricing of software is unfortunately very unlike pricing goods in store, and the experience we acquired working with our retail clients improving their own prices provided little insights about the pricing of Lokad.

Since the creation of the company, Lokad has been offering a metered pricing, charging according to the amount of forecasts consumed. However, in practice for the last two years, we signed only a handfew contracts where the pay-as-you-go pricing had been actually preserved. In practice, the usage consumption as observed during the trial period was used as the starting point of the negotiation; and then the negotiation invariably converged toward a flat monthly fee.

Starting from today, we have extensively revised the pricing of Lokad toward a very simple list of packages only differentiated by the maximal size for the client companies.

For SaaS companies selling to businesses, the (almost) ubiquitous pricing pattern consist of charging per user; that's the approach of Salesforce, Google Apps, Office 365, Zoho and many more. However, sometimes, charging per user doesn't make sense, because the number of users can be made arbitrarily low, and does not reflect at all the usage of the service. All cloud computing platforms fall into this category.

Metered pricing only works with Über-geek clients

The cloud computing example is misleading because it gives the false impression that metered pricing is just fine. Metered pricing works for cloud computing platforms because their clients are very technical and can digest pricing logics 100x more complex than logics acceptable by "non-tech" businesses.

At Lokad, we have observed many times that the fear of doing a mistake and increasing the invoice tenfold was generally considered as a deal-breaker. Most companies don't even nearly trust as much their employees as software companies do trust their software developers. A metered pricing put an implicit high level of trust on the employees operating the metered service.

Flat monthly / quarterly / yearly fees are the way to go

Through dozens of negotiations with clients, some large, some small, and across many countries, we have always converged toward periodic fees to be paid every month, quarter or year. Sometimes, we did add an additional setup fee to reflect some extra-effort to be delivered by Lokad to setup the solution, but in 7 years of business, we had only a handfew contracts more complex than a flat setup fee followed by a flat period fee.

The lesson here is that anything more complex than setup fee + periodic fee is very prone to accidental complexity providing little or no business value for the software company and its client.

Don't cripple your software by restricting access to features

The "freemium" vision consists of offering a free version with limited features, and restricting the access to the more advance features to paying clients. Again, if you consider a software where it's natural to charge per user this approach might work; however, when the software is not user-driven, not granting access to all features just drags down your small clients - who have mostly the same needs than your bigger clients.

We learned that crippling our own apps was just bad. At the end of most negotiations with clients, we were nearly always ending up granting access to all features - like the highest paying plan - for most companies. Naturally, the price point was adjusted accordingly, but nevertheless, we observed many times that crippling the software was just a lose-lose approach.

It's fine to trust your clients by default

For years, at Lokad, we had relied on the implicit assumption that whatever metric were going to be used to define the boundaries between the subscription plans, this metric had to be tracked by the software itself. However, by narrowing our vision to the sole metrics that our software could track, we had eliminated the one metric which was truly making sense: charge according to the company turnover.

Our new plans are differentiated based on turnover, and yet, we have not automated way to measure the turnover. However, is it really a problem? I don't think so. Over the years, we have very (very) few companies trying to game our terms. Moreover my observations indicates that the larger the company, the less likely they are to even consider the possibility of cheating.

The logical conclusion is then to grant access to everything by default, and then to gently remind companies of your pricing terms when the opportunity arise. B2B isn't B2C, for the vast majority of B2B software, even if you don't put any protection in place, the service isn't going to be swarmed by corporate freeloaders.

If it does, well that's a rich man's problem.


Bizarre pricing, does it matter? (B2B)

My company has just released quantile forecasts upgrade. It's no less than a small revolution for us, however, unless you've got some inventory to manage, it's probably not too relevant to your business.

Another salient aspect is our new pricing for quantiles (the old pricing for classic forecasts remains untouched). Lokad is selling a monthly subscription, and if $q_i$ represents one of the actual quantile values retrieved by the client during the month, then the monthly cost $C$ is given by:

$$C = $0.15 \times \left(\sum_{i=0}^n q_i^{2/3} \right)^{2/3}$$

We hesitated to round 0.15 as $\frac{\pi}{2}$ because formula look better with Greek letters. Obviously, it's not simple, and most people would go as far as saying it's downright obscure, but it is really a good pricing, or just plain insanity?

To understand a bit where Lokad is coming from, let's start with the fact that we are a B2B software company. About 95% of competitors don't have any kind of public pricing: you can only ask for a quote, and then a talented sales guy will contact you to figure out your maximum budget, only to get back to you with a quote at 120% of the figure you gave him.

However, I strongly favor public pricing, not because it's more transparent, honest, fair, whatever, but because it's a massive time saver. At Lokad, we don't enter into time-consuming pricing negotiations except for the largest clients, where it does make sense to spend time negotiating.

The cardinal rule of software pricing is that it should capture the willingness to pay of the client, which, in B2B, is typically related to the economic gains generated by the usage of the product. In the case of demand forecasting, benefits can be accurately computed. However, turning this forecasting benefits formula into a pricing formula is insaly complex in the general case.

Hence, we decided to settle for heuristics that somehow mimic this theoretical willingness to pay, ran many simulations over our existing customer base, and finally figured out the formula. I do not claim that this pricing formula is optimal in any way: it is not. However, it does bring a very reasonable pricing for clients ranging from 1-man companies to 100,000+ employees companies.


  • (As far we can judge) It's aligned with the value Lokad creates for clients.
  • It's still simple enough to be memorized in 20s.
  • It does not put incentive to game the pricing by excluding slow movers (i.e. products with low sales) from the forecasting process.
  • There is no threshold effect, where the pricing jumps to a much larger number just because the company has 1 more product than what the license would support.


  • It certainly falls into the category of bizarre pricing.
  • The only way to know for sure the real monthly cost is to give a try (1). 
  • Some prospects try the pricing formula on their own, and get it wrong (2).

(1) This statement applies to most metered SaaS, even if the pricing is linear. For example, at Lokad we had very little clue about our exact bandwidth consumption until we migrated toward the cloud (with dedicated servers, bandwidth was part of the package).

(2) I believe this partly explains why 95% of our competitors don't put any public price on display. That, and the fact that a very expensive pricing is likely to scare away prospects, before getting the chance of cornering them into the sales process.

I would be interested to see if other B2B niches have designed their own bizarre pricing formulas. Don't hesitate to submit them in comments.